The Mughal rule started in the Indian subcontinent when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was the descendent of Timur-Mongols; as his father was from Timur dynasty and the mother from Mongols dynasty. Mughal rule in Indian subcontinent reached to its glory during the rule of 6th Mughal emperor, Mohammad bin Aurangzeb. After Aurangzeb Mughal Empire started to decline, as the successors of Aurangzeb were not qualified enough to control the huge boundaries of Mughal Empire. Bahadur-Shah-Zafar was the last Mughal emperor to rule from the year 1837-1857. After the defeat of 1857 independence revolution against the British forces, the Mughals rule finally ended in Indian sub-continent. Mughals during their rule built several astonishing buildings, including the famous Taj Mahal in Agra, India. Mughal architecture was influenced by Islamic, Persian, and Indian architectural styles. The Mughal architecture saw its glory during the rule of Shah Jahan who built the Taj Mahal in the memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Ten most famous monuments built by Mughals
The list of most popular monuments built by Mughals goes as follows:
Taj Mahal, located in Agra, is the one of the most famous monuments built by Mughal. Taj Mahal was built by the 5th Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan. He built the Taj Mahal in the love of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of the building was started in 1632 and completed in 1648. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri was the chief architect of Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal is considered as the new seventh wonder of the world. Taj Mahal is a great tourist location in Agra and every year more than million people visit the palace. It is considered as the UNESCO World heritage site in Agra.
Badshahi Mosque is one of the best monuments built by Mughals during the rule of the 6th Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb Alamgir. Construction of the mosque started in 1671 and completed in three years of time. The Badshahi mosque remained the largest mosque in the world from the year 1673 to 1986. That counts to about 313 years. The courtyard area of the mosque is still considered as the largest courtyard of any mosque in the world. It is a UNESCO World heritage Site. Many people travel to the mosque every year, for the purpose of prayers or just to watch its great architectural design.
Shahi Fort, Lahore
Shahi Fort or Lahore Fort is a citadel located in Lahore, Punjab state of Pakistan. The emperor Akbar built the fort from 1556-1605. Shahi Fort is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pakistan. Famous sites in the fort include the Sheesh Mahal, Naulakha Pavilion, Alamgiri gate and Moti Masjid. The Pavilion was built in the Sheesh Mahal Courtyard. The Pavilion was used as a summer house for Shah Jahan. The cost of the Pavilion house is summed up to 900000 rupees or 9 lakh rupees. 900000 in Urdu is Naulakh and the name is used as Naulakha. Naulakha pavilion is considered as the World Heritage Site. Sheesh Mahal is located inside the north-western corner of the Lahore fort. It is a complex mirror and the hall was the personal use of the imperial family.
Red Fort is located in Delhi and built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1648, when he moved the capital from Agra to Delhi. It was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007. It was considered as the political center of the empire. The wall of the fort was built by red sandstones. The architectural design was influenced by Persian and Islamic styles. The design of the fort was made by great Mughal designer and architect, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Every year, the fort attracts thousands of visitors to the Delhi City. On the day of independence, the flag hoisting ceremony is held inside the Red Fort. Indian Prime Minister hoists the flag and gives speech to the Indian public.
Shalimar gardens are located on GT road, Baghbanpura Lahore. The garden was built during the rule of Shah Jahan and the project was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of the court of Shah Jahan. Shalimar garden was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1972. There are 410 fountains in the Shalimar garden and 5 cascades all ended up in a great water pool. The famous sites in the Shalimar garden include the Savan Bhadun pavilion, Aramgah, Khwabgah, Royal Bath, and The Awan.
Humayun Tomb is a tomb of 2nd Mughal emperor Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun. The construction of the tomb was commissioned by the Humayun first wife Bega Bagum in 1569. Mirak Mirza was the chief architect of the tomb. The site chosen was the bank of Yamuna River close to the Shrine of famous Muslim saint Nizam-ud-din Auliya. The project was started in 1565 and completed in 1572. After the death of Humayun in 1556; his body was buried in the Purana Qila in Delhi. Akbar used to visit the tomb every year until it was completed. Humayun grave lies in the basement of the center hall.
Jama-e-Masjid Delhi or Masjid-e-Jahan-Numa (World reflecting mosque) is a mosque in Delhi India. The mosque was built in the order of Mughal king, Shah Jahan. The construction of the mosque started in 1650 and ended in 1656. It is the most famous and biggest mosque in India. Courtyard of the mosque can hold up to 250000 worshippers during prayer timing.
Hiran Minar is located in Sheikhupura near Lahore. It is a Minaret build by Mughal king Jahangir for the love of his pet deer Mansraj. There is a large water tank as a water source for the emperor pets. The water pool is connected with a pavilion on the mainland and also a 30 meters high minaret. Surrounded around the complex are forests of the Mughal age that provide a serene atmosphere to the pets of Mughal family.
Fatehpur Sikri is located in located in Agra, Utter-Pradesh, India. It is a small city of Mughal age founded by Badshah Akbar in 1569. Akbar shifted the capital to the small city of Fatehpur as a dedication to his Sufi Saint Salim Chisti. The city was completed in 15 years. Several buildings were built including the royal palaces, harem, private courtyards, city walls, and the city mosque. The city was named as Fatehabad as Fateh mean “victorious”.
Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore
Wazir Khan Mosque is located in the inner Lahore city. The mosque was built in seven years started from 1634. A noble of the court of Shah Jahan Hakim Sheikh-ud-din Ansari, the governor of Lahore supervised the construction of the mosque. Easiest access to the mosque is through the Delhi gate of the inner Lahore city. Wazir means minister so the mosque was built by a Mughal minister. It has a 500 feet minaret. There are several copies of the Quran in the mosque.